Jefferson needed four fewer games to break the previous mark held by another former Vikings receiver, Randy Moss, who had 4,163 yards from 1998-2000.
Jefferson's record-breaking catch came on a 37-yard play with five minutes, eight seconds remaining in the third quarter of the Vikings' game against the Patriots. Jefferson accomplished the feat in his 44th career game, while Moss' total came over the course of 48 games.
The 37-yard reception gave Jefferson a total of 4,168 in his career.
Jefferson finished the 33-26 win with nine receptions and 139 yards and a touchdown.
"It means a lot. It means that my course of reaching to the Hall of Fame is near," Jefferson said after the game. "I'm just going to keep working, doing whatever it takes to make plays for this team. I love this team. I'll do anything for it. When that ball is in the air, it's mine."
Jefferson led the NFL in receiving during his first two seasons, totaling 3,016 yards in 33 games.